Meta menu:

From here, you can access the Emergencies page, Contact Us page, Accessibility Settings, Language Selection, and Search page.

Open Menu

Vascular malformations

Space-occupying vascular malformations covers a large, diverse group of different malformations and tumours.

You are here:

Vascular and arterio-venous malformations (AVM)

They should be treated if patients develop symptoms from them. The reasons for treatment are summarised in the table below. Absolute indications include those in which treatment is urgently required. Relative indications include those in which the desired benefits and potential risks should be weighed against each other.

Table 1:

Absolute and relative indications for treatment of malformations

Absolute indications

Relative indications

  • Bleeding
  • Pain
  • Heart failure caused by large arterio-venous shunt volume
  • Limiting pain
  • Ischaemia
  • Functional restrictions
  • Chronic venous ischaemia
  • Cosmetically severe deformity
  • Disruption of vital functions by the malformation
  • High risk of complications
  • Compression or displacement of vital structures
  • Lymphatic leakage
  • Abnormal bone growth due to malformation
  • The following treatment options are available:

    • Sclerotherapy
    • Embolisation
    • Surgical resection
    • Laser coagulation
    • and manual compression